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In their excellent newsletter HEALTHbeat, Harvard Medical School recently reported that, “when it comes to shedding pounds, the key is cutting calories — and it doesn’t really matter whether those calories come mainly from steak, bread, or vegetables.”
Okay, but if you commit to doing regular, calorie-burning exercise can’t you enjoy more fattening food more of the time?
Research suggests that the exercise approach will work – at least for women – if they start out at a normal weight. But for those who are overweight to begin with, exercise won’t be enough. In other words, exercise can keep you thin but it’s not going to make you thin. For that, you’re going to have cut calories and increase exercise.
If you don’t believe it, here’s the research evidence…
The study’s focus… Many studies have shown that physical activity can promote weight loss among people who are overweight or obese, but far fewer have investigated whether it can prevent unhealthy weight gain in the first place. That IS the focus of a study by Harvard Medical School researchers.
The researchers analyzed data provided by 34,079 healthy women, average age 54, who were participating in the long-term Women’s Health Study. Between 1992 and 2007, the women reported their body weight and physical activities every three years. They also provided information on matters that could affect the link between physical activity and weight change, such as smoking, postmenopausal hormone use, alcohol intake, and diet.
Participants were divided into three groups based on their level of physical activity, with energy expended in each group expressed in metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week. A MET is a unit used to estimate the energy expended during physical activity, relative to the energy expended while sitting quietly.
The results… Not surprisingly, moderate-intensity activity, such as brisk walking, consumes more METs than lower-intensity activities such as yoga or stretching. In the study, women at the lowest activity level got less than 7.5 MET hours per week, the minimum recommended in federal guidelines (it’s the amount expended in walking briskly for 30 minutes, five days a week). The middle group got 7.5 to less than 21 MET hours per week; and the most active women got 21 MET hours or more per week, which requires at least 60 minutes per day of moderately intense physical activity — or 30 minutes per day of vigorous activity.
Over the course of the study, the women gained 5.7 pounds, on average. Those who exercised less tended to gain more: over any three-year period, women in the low and middle activity levels were more likely to gain 5 or more pounds than the most active women. When the researchers looked only at the 4,540 women who were normal weight (a body mass index of less than 25) at the study’s outset and who had managed to hold their weight in the normal range, they found that these weight-maintainers averaged 60 minutes of moderately intense activity per day.
What it means… Among normal-weight women, the likelihood of putting on weight decreased as physical activity level increased. Among women who were overweight or obese, there was no relationship between physical activity and weight gain.
Thus, for women who aren’t overweight or obese, exercise can keep off excess pounds, but it must add up to about seven hours per week of moderately intense activity such as brisk walking or casual bicycling — or 3.5 hours per week of vigorous activity such as jogging or aerobic dancing.
For women who are already overweight or obese, increased physical activity alone is not enough to prevent further weight gain. These women also need to reduce their calorie intake. But they should still get at least 30 minutes of moderately intense physical activity most days for the sake of the many health benefits, which include a reduced risk of chronic conditions such as heart disease and stroke.
It’s spring in New York. I know because despite the cold and rain, my annual allergies have arrived with a vengeance. The symptoms: coughing, sneezing, nasal congestion even to the point that it’s hard for me to sleep.
In most people these discomforts would get suffered in silence. But given my tendency toward hypochondria, I a) tell my friends who are of little help, then b) compulsively search the internet and c) inevitably shudder to imagine that, somehow, my entire list of complaints pop up in stories about asthma.
As it turns out, I don’t think I’ve got asthma because, according to my semi-obsessive Google investigations, I don’t fall into any of the high-risk groups. Do you?
Heredity: You definitely inherit the predisposition to asthma. In fact, docs think that 60% of all asthma cases are rooted in heredity. According to a CDC report, if one of your parents has asthma, you’re 3-6 times more likely to get it than someone without this genetic link.
Gender: In kids, asthma is more common among boys than girls. Once we reach our 20’s, the ratio equalizes. And by age 40, more women have it than men.
Cigarette Smoke: Several studies confirm that smoking increases risk. There’s also research indicating that if you smoked when you were in your teens, you’re at increased risk later on. Even more findings link exposure to secondhand smoke with development of asthma in kids. And finally, if your mom smoked while she was pregnant with you, then you are at increased risk for having been born prematurely and with lower lung function—both of which are linked to developing asthma.
Weight: Seven unrelated studies find that asthma is nearly 40% more common in overweight adults (those with a BMI greater than 25 but less than 30) and almost twice as common in those with a BMI of 30+).
Socioeconomic Background: Asthma is more common in economically disadvantaged communities, so it’s not surprising to learn that in Los Angeles (where one study was conducted) three times as many African-American school children are hospitalized annually for asthma as are white kids. Twice as many Latino kids are hospitalized compared to whites.
Indoor Allergies: Indoor allergies are definitely an asthma predictor. These include dust mite allergies, cat allergies and dog allergies. One nationwide study showed that levels of indoor allergens directly linked to asthma symptoms and inhaler use. Another showed that kids living in homes with high concentrations of these allergens are 5 times more likely to develop asthma.
So I’m grateful that my parents are asthma-free, glad I’m a woman, relieved that I’ve never smoked, weighed in at a chubby 7lb 4 oz at birth, proud I try to stick to a pretty healthy diet (except around pasta!), and have learned to use all-natural allergy products to lower the levels of indoor allergens in my apartment.
Now, if I can just find something to help with my hypochondria. That can’t be fatal, can it?